LESIONES: FUTBOL

1938
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De acuerdo con la FIFA, el fútbol es el deporte más popular del mundo, con aproximadamente 200 millones de jugadores. Curiosamente, unos 40 millones de ellos son mujeres. Se producen lesiones frecuentemente, aunque un diagnóstico precoz puede contribuir a reducir los tiempos de recuperación y evitar casos de discapacidad a largo plazo.

El futbol, es un deporte que exige mucho tanto en la parte física como mental de los futbolistas. Para practicarlo se necesita combinar técnicas de carrera, saltos, cambios de dirección y movimientos diversos.

Las lesiones en este deporte son bastante comunes,

 

5 Lesiones mas comunes

Rotura Muscular:  Es la lesión del futbolista por excelencia. La cifra se estima entre el 30/ 40% del total de lesiones. Sobre todo, afecta a futbolistas muy explosivos. Se producen generalmente por una sobrecarga: el músculo es sometido a un exceso de trabajo y se rompe. Hay futbolistas que tienen una mayor predisposición a sufrir este tipo de lesiones. El problema añadido es que cada vez que hay lesión queda una cicatriz, de modo que el músculo va perdiendo rendimiento.

El tiempo de recuperación varía entre las tres y las seis semanas, en función de la magnitud de la rotura, el músculo implicado y la zona de rotura. Suelen ser más vulnerables los músculos biarticulares, si bien el abductor, que sólo abarca una articulación, es un músculo frecuentemente lesionado en futbolistas.

Esguince de tobillo: Se produce habitualmente por una torcedura que suele producirse en inversión: la planta del pie mira hacia adentro, mientras que la cara lateral puede llegar a tocar el suelo. Lo más frecuente es que se rompa el ligamento lateral, aunque también puede romper el medial.

El tiempo de recuperación varía, aunque oscila entre tres y seis semanas. El esguince tiene un problema añadido: el 30% de ellos dejan secuelas, que derivan de una cicatriz interna en el ligamento roto, o de un daño en el cartílago por efecto de la torcedura. «Esas lesiones tienen un peor pronóstico.

Rotura del ligamento cruzado. Los deportes de arrancada, frenada y pivotaje son los más propensos a producir esta lesión. Afecta especialmente a las mujeres, porque su rodilla tiene mayor laxitud. La lesión ocurre cuando los ligamentos, que son esenciales para que la rodilla no se descomponga y darle estabilidad, se rompen por un estiramiento excesivo o un golpe. De los cuatro ligamentos de la rodilla, el cruzado anterior (que controla la rotación de la tibia e impide el desplazamiento del fémur) es el más propenso a romperse, y su rotura es la que reviste mayor gravedad. «El cruzado anterior no cicatriza bien porque está dentro de la articulación y tiene su propia sinovial»,

Para volver a practicar deportes de arrancada y frenada la única solución a día de hoy es la intervención quirúrgica para reconstruirlo, lo que implica casi siempre su sustitución mediante artroscopia, ya sea utilizando tejido del propio paciente o de un banco de tejidos. Después, hay que armarse de paciencia (y de trabajo) para afrontar un proceso de recuperación de seis meses, con trabajo de readaptación, fisioterapia, refuerzo para recuperar movilidad.

Tendinopatías y rotura del tendón de Aquiles. suelen presentar el inconveniente de que el paciente se presenta tarde ante el traumatólogo. Se distingue entre las lesiones insercionales, que afectan a la unión del tendón con el hueso del calcáneo, y no insercionales, que sufre el cuerpo del tendón, localizado a 2-6 centímetros de la unión del tendón con el hueso. Cada una tiene un tratamiento diferenciado que debe evaluar un especialista.

La rotura puede ser una consecuencia de un problema crónico no tratado debidamente. El problema crónico puede no percibirse, de modo que no haya síntomas ni molestias. De esta manera, se produce la rotura sin que advirtamos que podía haberse hecho algo para evitarla.  El único tratamiento posible para la rotura en un deportista es la operación quirúrgica, que «reproduce con mayor fiabilidad la longitud nativa del tendón», aunque en personas mayores o con riesgos puede optarse por un tratamiento conservador. El plazo de recuperación habitual de entre cuatro y seis meses.

Pubalgias.  Tiene una expresión de síntomas localizados a nivel del pubis, con irradiaciones dolorosas hacia los aductores, los abdominales y los arcos crurales. Se produce cuando hay un «desequilibrio de fuerzas» entre músculos agonistas y antagonistas. La pubalgia del deportista es cada vez menos frecuente: «Aunque hay más carga de trabajo, también hay más ciencia en la preparación física y en la recuperación. Hay más trabajo de reequilibrio pélvico».

El tratamiento esencial pasa por reequilibrar la musculatura alrededor de la pelvis, que sufre especialmente en el caso del futbolista porque practica un deporte asimétrico.

 

FUNDAMENTAL PARA EVITAR LAS LESIONES: ELONGACION Y CALENTAMIENTO PREVIO AL PARTIDO, CALZADO Y VESTIMENTA ADECUADA, NO SOBRE-EXIGIRSE

 

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