¿Cuánto tiempo lleva recuperarse del covid-19?

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El nuevo coronavirus surgió apenas a finales de 2019, pero ya hay signos de que algunos pacientes pueden tardar mucho tiempo en recuperarse completamente.

El tiempo de convalecencia dependerá, en primer lugar, de qué tan graves sean los síntomas. Algunas personas pasarán la enfermedad rápidamente, pero a otras la covid-19 podría dejarles problemas duraderos.

La edad, el género y padecer otros problemas de salud aumentan el riesgo de enfermarse más gravemente a causa del nuevo virus.

Cuanto más invasivo sea el tratamiento que reciba, y cuanto más tiempo dure, más tardará un paciente en restablecerse.

¿Qué ocurre si solo tengo síntomas leves?

La mayoría de las personas contagiadas con el nuevo coronavirus desarrollarán solo los síntomas principales: tos o fiebre. Pero también podrían experimentar dolores en el cuerpo, fatiga, dolor de garganta y de cabeza.

La tos es inicialmente seca, pero algunas personas eventualmente comenzarán a toser con mucosidad que contiene células pulmonares muertas, destruidas por el virus.

Estos síntomas se tratan con reposo en cama, muchos líquidos y fármacos para aliviar el dolor, como el paracetamol.

ALGUNOS ENFERMOS DE COVID-19 PUEDEN EXPERIMENTAR DOLORES EN EL CUERPO, FATIGA, DOLOR DE GARGANTA Y DOLOR DE CABEZA.

Las personas con síntomas leves probablemente se recuperen bien y rápidamente.

La fiebre debería calmarse en menos de una semana, aunque la tos pueda persistir.

Un análisis realizado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) a partir de datos de China dice que a los pacientes les toma dos semanas en promedio recuperarse.

¿Qué pasa si tengo síntomas más graves?

La enfermedad puede volverse mucho más grave para algunos. Esto tiende a suceder entre siete y 10 días después de la infección.

La transformación puede ser repentina. La respiración se vuelve difícil y los pulmones se inflaman.

Esto se debe a que, aunque el sistema inmunitario del cuerpo está tratando de defenderse, en realidad está reaccionando de forma exagerada y el cuerpo experimenta daños colaterales.

Algunas personas necesitarán estar en el hospital para recibir oxigenoterapia.

“Recuperarse de la dificultad para respirar puede tomar un tiempo considerable… el cuerpo está superando las cicatrices y la inflamación”, dice la doctora Sarah Jarvis.

Agrega que curarse podría tomar de dos a ocho semanas, aunque el cansancio persista durante más tiempo.

¿Qué ocurre si necesito cuidados intensivos?

La OMS estima que una de cada 20 personas necesitará un tratamiento de cuidados intensivos, lo que puede incluir ser sedada y necesitar un respirador.

Toma tiempo recuperarse del paso por una unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI), sin importar cuál sea la enfermedad por la que se haya ingresado. Por ello, los pacientes son trasladados a una planta regular antes de ser dados de alta.

La doctora Alison Pittard, decana de la Facultad de Medicina de Cuidados Intensivos de Reino Unido, dice que puede tomar de 12 a 18 meses volver a la normalidad después de cualquier período bajo cuidados críticos.

Pasar mucho tiempo en una cama de hospital conduce a la pérdida de masa muscular.

Como consecuencia, los pacientes estarán débiles y los músculos tardarán un tiempo en desarrollarse nuevamente. Algunas personas incluso necesitarán fisioterapia para volver a caminar.

REHABILITACIÓN DE UN PACIENTE DE CORONAVIRUS EN FRANCIA.

Debido a lo que el cuerpo atraviesa en la UCI, también existe la posibilidad de delirio y trastornos psicológicos.

“Parece haber un elemento adicional con esta enfermedad: la fatiga viral es definitivamente un factor enorme”, dice Paul Twose, fisioterapeuta de cuidados críticos de la Universidad de Cardiff y Vale.

Ha habido reportes de China e Italia de pacientes con debilidad en todo el cuerpo, falta de aliento de hacer un esfuerzo, sea del nivel que sea, tos persistente y respiración irregular.

Algunos necesitan, además, muchas horas de sueño.

“Sabemos que los pacientes tardan un tiempo considerable, potencialmente meses, en recuperarse”.

“Pero es difícil generalizar. Algunas personas pasan períodos relativamente cortos en cuidados críticos, mientras que otras reciben respiración asistida durante semanas”.

¿Afectará el coronavirus a mi salud a largo plazo?

No lo sabemos con certeza, ya que no hay datos a largo plazo, pero podemos observar lo que ocurre con otras enfermedades.

“Hay evidencia realmente firme de que, incluso cinco años después (de haber pasado por cuidados intensivos), las personas pueden tener dificultades físicas y psicológicas”, dice Twose.

El doctor James Gill, profesor de la Escuela de Medicina de Warwick, en Inglaterra, agrega que las personas también necesitan apoyo de salud mental para mejorar su recuperación.

“El trastorno de estrés postraumático en estos pacientes más graves no es sorprendente. Habrá cicatrices psicológicas significativas para muchos”.

Existe la posibilidad de que incluso algunos casos leves puedan dejar a los pacientes con problemas de salud a largo plazo, como la fatiga.

¿Cuántas personas se han recuperado?

Obtener una cifra precisa es difícil.

La Universidad Johns Hopkins reporta que hasta el 18 de abril más de 577.000 personas se habían recuperado de los más de dos millones de infectados.

UN PACIENTE DE COVID-19 BESA EL SUELO TRAS ABANDONAR EL HOSPITAL EN MARRUECOS.

Pero los países usan diferentes métodos de registro. Algunos no publican cifras de recuperación y se pasan por alto muchas infecciones leves.

Los modelos matemáticos estiman que entre el 99 y el 99,5% de las personas se recuperan.

¿Puedo contraer el nuevo coronavirus otra vez?

Ha habido mucha especulación, pero poca evidencia, sobre cuán duradera es la inmunización ante el nuevo coronaviru.

Si los pacientes han superado el virus, deben haber desarrollado una respuesta inmune.

Los reportes de pacientes infectados dos veces pueden deberse a pruebas que registraron incorrectamente que ya estaban libres del virus.

La cuestión de la inmunidad es vital para entender si las personas pueden volver a infectarse y qué tan efectiva puede ser una vacuna.TEMAS

BBC

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