Coronavirus: ¿Cuáles son sus síntomas y cómo prevenirlos?

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Los coronavirus (CoV) son una amplia familia de virus que pueden causar diversas afecciones, desde el resfriado común hasta enfermedades más graves. El  COVID-19 detectado por primera vez en diciembre de 2019 en Wuhan y que ya se expande por el resto del mundo, es un tipo de microorganismo diferente a cualquier otro coronavirus humano descubierto hasta el momento.

Pese a que todavía existen muchas cuestiones que se desconocen en relación al COVID-19, las autoridades sanitarias han informado de los signos y síntomas clínicos notificados hasta el momento: los más comunes incluyen fiebre superior a 38°C, tos, y sensación de falta de aire. En casos más graves, la infección puede causar neumonía, dificultad importante para respirar, fallo renal e incluso la muerte. Estos últimos, generalmente ocurren en personas ancianas o que padecen alguna otra enfermedad como por ejemplo, del corazón, del pulmón o problemas de inmunidad.

En casos más graves, la infección puede causar neumonía, dificultad importante para respirar, fallo renal e incluso la muerte

El nuevo coronavirus es transmisible de persona a persona aunque parece ser poco contagiosa. Para que se produzca la infección se necesitaría un contacto directo de las secreciones respiratorias de un animal infectado o de una persona infectada con las mucosas de otra persona (nariz, boca, ojos). Asimismo, parece poco probable la transmisión por el aire a distancias mayores de uno o dos metros.

Surge entonces la pregunta, ¿qué puedo hacer para protegerme? En general, las medidas de protección individual frente a enfermedades respiratorias incluyen realizar una higiene de manos frecuente (lavado con agua y jabón o soluciones alcohólicas), especialmente después de contacto directo con personas enfermas o su entorno; evitar el contacto estrecho con personas que muestren signos de afección respiratoria, como tos o estornudos; mantener una distancia de un metro aproximadamente con las personas con síntomas de infección respiratoria aguda; cubrirse la boca y la nariz con pañuelos desechables o con una tela al toser o estornudar y lavarse las manos.

Estas medidas, además, protegen frente a enfermedades frecuentes como la gripe. Por último, las autoridades sanitarias señalan que no es necesario tomar precauciones especiales con los animales en España, ni con los alimentos, para evitar esta infección.

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