Antinutrientes: qué son y cuáles son sus efectos en nuestro cuerpo

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lgunos componentes dificultan el aprovechamiento de los nutrientes. Se trata de componentes de los alimentos poco conocidos, sustancias presentes en los alimentos que tienen efecto contrario a un nutriente, es decir, que puede interferir en la digestión, absorción o actividad de uno o más nutrientes.

Según el tipo de componente que sea, puede arrastrar nutrientes al pasar por el aparato digestivo y así, impedir que el cuerpo aproveche, por ejemplo, vitaminas o minerales. Además, pueden incentivar la excreción o impedir la digestión de algunos nutrientes en el cuerpo humano y provocar un efecto negativo en la calidad final de la dieta.

Entre los más frecuentes de nuestra alimentación podemos encontrar:

  • Saponinas: abundan en legumbres y pseudocereales y en nuestro cuerpo reducen la absorción del hierro.
  • Fitatos: ante todo en cereales integrales, ya que forma parte del salvado de los granos. Es un componente de la fibra de estos alimentos y puede reducir la absorción del hierro de origen vegetal, como también disminuir la disponibilidad de calcio.
  • Taninos: están en las legumbres secas y en el té o el café. En menor medida también se puede encontrar en algunas frutas. En el organismo reducen la disponibilidad de hierro y proteínas.
  • Oxalatos: están en legumbres, cacao, remolachas, hojas verdes, frutos secos y otros alimentos de origen vegetal. Iimpiden la correcta asimilación del calcio y el hierro en nuestro cuerpo.
  • Avidina: se encuentra en la clara de huevo y se une a la biotina, una vitamina del grupo B, impidiendo su utilización en nuestro cuerpo.

¿Es posible controlar el efecto de los antinutrientes en el cuerpo?

  • Lo importante es saber que en el caso de saponinas y taninos de las legumbres, su contenido se reduce considerablemente con el remojo previo a la cocción, así como también, se puede reducir su efecto con el lavado y enjuague en el caso de la quinoa.
  • La avidina propia de la clara del huevo queda totalmente inactiva durante la cocción y esa es otra razón por la que es aconsejable evitar el consumo de huevo crudo.
  • Para evitar la acción de los fitatos o de los taninos del té y café, lo más aconsejable es no abusar de su ingesta y, sobre todo, no consumir alimentos que los contienen junto a fuentes de hierro de origen vegetal.
  • En cuanto a l os oxalatos de las legumbres también se inactivan con el remojo, al igual que el de los frutos secos. Y el contenido en vegetales queda totalmente disminuido después de cocinarlos.

Fuente: La Nación

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