Antinutrientes: qué son y cuáles son sus efectos en nuestro cuerpo


lgunos componentes dificultan el aprovechamiento de los nutrientes. Se trata de componentes de los alimentos poco conocidos, sustancias presentes en los alimentos que tienen efecto contrario a un nutriente, es decir, que puede interferir en la digestión, absorción o actividad de uno o más nutrientes.

Según el tipo de componente que sea, puede arrastrar nutrientes al pasar por el aparato digestivo y así, impedir que el cuerpo aproveche, por ejemplo, vitaminas o minerales. Además, pueden incentivar la excreción o impedir la digestión de algunos nutrientes en el cuerpo humano y provocar un efecto negativo en la calidad final de la dieta.

Entre los más frecuentes de nuestra alimentación podemos encontrar:

  • Saponinas: abundan en legumbres y pseudocereales y en nuestro cuerpo reducen la absorción del hierro.
  • Fitatos: ante todo en cereales integrales, ya que forma parte del salvado de los granos. Es un componente de la fibra de estos alimentos y puede reducir la absorción del hierro de origen vegetal, como también disminuir la disponibilidad de calcio.
  • Taninos: están en las legumbres secas y en el té o el café. En menor medida también se puede encontrar en algunas frutas. En el organismo reducen la disponibilidad de hierro y proteínas.
  • Oxalatos: están en legumbres, cacao, remolachas, hojas verdes, frutos secos y otros alimentos de origen vegetal. Iimpiden la correcta asimilación del calcio y el hierro en nuestro cuerpo.
  • Avidina: se encuentra en la clara de huevo y se une a la biotina, una vitamina del grupo B, impidiendo su utilización en nuestro cuerpo.

¿Es posible controlar el efecto de los antinutrientes en el cuerpo?

  • Lo importante es saber que en el caso de saponinas y taninos de las legumbres, su contenido se reduce considerablemente con el remojo previo a la cocción, así como también, se puede reducir su efecto con el lavado y enjuague en el caso de la quinoa.
  • La avidina propia de la clara del huevo queda totalmente inactiva durante la cocción y esa es otra razón por la que es aconsejable evitar el consumo de huevo crudo.
  • Para evitar la acción de los fitatos o de los taninos del té y café, lo más aconsejable es no abusar de su ingesta y, sobre todo, no consumir alimentos que los contienen junto a fuentes de hierro de origen vegetal.
  • En cuanto a l os oxalatos de las legumbres también se inactivan con el remojo, al igual que el de los frutos secos. Y el contenido en vegetales queda totalmente disminuido después de cocinarlos.

Fuente: La Nación



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